Sometimes the sun doesn’t shine or the wind doesn’t blow, temporarily stalling renewable energy production.  When that happens, what fuel source fills in the energy gap?  Traditionally the answer was coal, but due to increased supply and low prices, the answer of late has been natural gas.  Coal is certainly the dirtier of the two fossil fuels, but natural gas is not a perfect choice either.  The increased supply in natural gas was achieved through the process of hydraulic fracturing (called fracking), which can be harmful to the environment.

Last spring natural gas prices fell to all-time lows of $2 to $3 per thousand cubic feet in the United States.  This spring natural gas prices are on the rise.  In fact, they’ve doubled to just over $4 per thousand cubic feet, but the bottom line is natural gas is still pretty cheap.  Experts say prices in the $4 or $5 range won’t affect the increasing use of the fuel by consumers and the energy industry since the price was $8 just a few years ago.  In Europe and Asia prices are even higher; think $10 to $14.

According to a Citibank research report, “Gas and renewables could in fact be the making of each other in the short term.”  Expect renewables to cost about the same as conventional fuels in many parts of the world “in the very near term.”  Mark Brownstein, an associate vice president at the Environmental Defense Fund, noted that the price of renewable energy has declined substantially in recent years, and that’s expected to continue, making them even more competitive.  As demand for renewables builds, it will in turn “drive demand for more gas-fired” power plants to be used as backup.

Meanwhile, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) missed an April 13 deadline to issue much-anticipated new rules limiting carbon dioxide emissions from new power plants.  Proposed a year ago, the rules were first to set limits on greenhouse gas emissions from new plants.  Once a limit is set for new facilities, the EPA is legally obligated to address existing plants, which pose the true climate threat at the moment.  The US’ power plant fleet is the single biggest source of greenhouse gas emissions in the world.  Acting EPA Administrator Bob Perciasepe said last week that the agency expects to propose new rules on greenhouse gases from existing plants in fiscal 2014.

The draft rule for new power plants sets a limit of 1,000 pounds of carbon dioxide per megawatt-hour of electricity.  That cutoff point would be easy for natural-gas-fired plants to meet, but not conventional coal plants.  Already, power companies build natural gas plants almost exclusively because of the low price of gas. 

There is speculation that the EPA’s indefinite delay on the new rules limiting carbon dioxide emissions from new power plants is due to second thoughts at the EPA and the White House over the single standard.  The EPA is said to be contemplating setting two standards, one for coal plants and the other for natural gas, which might make the new rule more legally defensible in an attempt to avert the inevitable legal wrangling that goes on whenever the EPA sets a new rule including limitations.

Environmental groups argue that separate standards make little sense.  “Setting a separate standard for coal- and natural-gas-fired plants would greatly weaken the standard’s ability to ensure a transition away from building high-carbon electricity-generation sources,” said economist Rachel Cleetus of the Union of Concerned Scientists.

Natural gas may be the interim answer as we build our renewable energy infrastructure and then the backup once we move to a sustainable energy future.  For the sake of slowing down climate change, the EPA needs to set the rules on new electricity generation plants posthaste.  Then they should tackle existing power plants without delay.  Global warming won’t wait.

Published in carbonfree blog

A national multi-state effort to create new standards in science education was announced this week.  For the first time, science curriculum identifies climate change as a core concept and emphasizes the role that human activity has on climate systems.

The Next Generation Science Standards for state education curriculums is a joint effort of the National Research Council, the National Science Teachers Association, the American Association for the Advancement of Science and the nonprofit group Achieve.  The new standards are the first extensive national recommendations for science instruction since 1996.  They were developed by scientists and experts in 26 states, but they are optional.

So this means some middle and high school students enrolled in the American public school system will soon be required to study climate change as a scientific occurrence.  About 40 U.S. states are expected to identify global warming as a man-made problem.  Environmentalists are cheering, but unfortunately the issue is just as charged in the educational arena as the political one.

“Climate change is not a political issue and climate change is not a debate. It is science,” Mario Molina, deputy director at the Alliance for Climate Education, told the Guardian. “It is strongly supported heavily researched science, and our hope is that teachers will not see this as a political issue or a political debate.”

Unfortunately, some very vocal Americans do not consider climate change scientific.  They see it as a controversial issue that shouldn’t be taught in schools.  “It’s a shame that American school kids are being taught claims of certitude on an issue that continues to unravel before our eyes,” Marco Morano, communications director for Committee For A Constructive Tomorrow, told The Washington Examiner, while referencing studies that suggest global warming has nothing to do with human actions.  “To teach kids there’s a consensus… is a major disservice to children, and a disservice to education,” he added.

Here’s how the New York Times describes the new standards: “Educators involved in drawing them up said the guidelines were intended to combat widespread scientific ignorance, to standardize teaching among states, and to raise the number of high school graduates who choose scientific and technical majors in college, a critical issue for the country’s economic future.”

“The focus would be helping students become more intelligent science consumers by learning how scientific work is done: how ideas are developed and tested, what counts as strong or weak evidence, and how insights from many disciplines fit together into a coherent picture of the world.”

Meanwhile, The UK Department of Education has introduced a proposal that would completely ban climate change from educational discussions, due to its controversial nature.  Children under 14 will no longer be able to learn about the human impact on climate change. 

So the battle to educate Earth’s children about global warming rages on, but at least it will soon be an option in the U.S.

Published in carbonfree blog

Large industrialized nations such as the United States and Australia no longer can point to lesser developed countries for refusing to set binding emissions targets.  This week the head of the United Nation's (UN) climate change secretariat, Christiana Figueres, praised on Twitter the "remarkable leadership ahead of [a] 2015 agreement" of the Group of Least Developed Countries (LDCs) willingness to sign legally binding emission reduction targets as part of any new international climate treaty.  The 2015 agreement aims to provide a new draft international climate change treaty that will then be enacted by 2020.

Last week Quamrul Chowdury, lead negotiator for the LDC Group, told Climate News Network that the group would accept binding emission targets as part of any new deal, provided they are based on countries' differing circumstances, and that they would like to see all countries face such targets.

Historically the group of 49 LDCs, which together cover 12 per cent of the world's population, refused to accept responsibility for helping to solve a problem they do not believe they caused.  This allowed some developed countries to argue that they will make cuts only when the LDCs do so, despite the fact that it is industrialization and development that have largely contributed to the human caused portion of climate change.

Also this week, Responding to Climate Change reported that Afghanistan became the latest country to formally ratify the Kyoto Protocol.  The country is now required to develop its own national action plan, including development of low carbon infrastructure and adaptation to climate change.  The U.S. never ratified the Kyoto Protocol, and shows little sign of ever doing so while Canada, Japan and New Zealand withdrew from the agreement at the last round of UN climate talks in Doha.

The LDCs willingness to sign targets is a critical step forward in negotiations that have been stalled for years with industrialized nations and lesser developed countries at loggerheads.  The LDCs have stepped up and made the first move.  Now it is time for the U.S. to make its citizens proud and commit to legally binding greenhouse gas emission reduction targets as well.  The fact is our country is out of excuses.  Let’s not run out of time to save the planet too.

Published in carbonfree blog

As spring nudges its way into April, most of us are looking forward to longer, warmer days and short-sleeved outdoor activities.  There is, however, a very hardy group of extreme sports enthusiasts preparing for the grueling sub-zero temperatures that will envelope them during the running of the 11th annual UVU (You versus You) North Pole Marathon on April 9th.

The North Pole Marathon is run over the classic 26.2 miles marathon distance, and the race includes an individual competition with male and female divisions and a team competition for teams of three or more.  There will be 24 hours of daylight at the North Pole during race time, so the race is scheduled to commence at midnight, if the conditions are optimal.   Forty-eight competitors from 20 countries will take part in the 2013 UVU North Pole Marathon.

This year’s UVU North Pole Marathon will set a record of its own by achieving CarbonFree® Event status in partnership with Carbonfund.org.  Race organizer Polar Running Adventures worked with Carbonfund.org to assess the event-related carbon dioxide emissions resulting from attendees’ international flights to the Svalbard, Norway meeting venue, attendee and staff travel from Svalbard to the North Pole camp, all helicopter flight emissions related to race set-up and management, and heating fuel consumed by the accommodation tents provided at the race site.   

The overall calculated emissions impact was then offset by an equal investment in reforestation projects in the Brazilian Amazon in order to neutralize the estimated race-related emissions.

The North Pole Marathon race course crosses Arctic ice floes six to twelve feet thick, located at the Geographic North Pole.  In fact, not a single section of this marathon crosses over land. Dubbed the 'World's Coolest Marathon' by Runner's World magazine in 2004, and with temperatures hovering around April’s 40 degrees below zero Fahrenheit, icicles forming on eyelashes, eyebrows and noses will be the least of the competitors’ worries. 

The first ever North Pole Marathon was a 'solo' run by Polar Running Adventures’ own Richard Donovan. Richard won the First Ever South Pole Marathon ten weeks previously and became the first marathoner at both poles by completing the North Pole Marathon. 

"The melting sea ice of the Arctic Ocean is often cited to be the result of the impact of global warming. Hence, the North Pole Marathon is very conscious of the need to use its race location on the polar ice cap in a positive environmental manner,” explains Richard.  “Many of the participants use the event to spread climate change messages to a large global audience, and we have found a perfect partner in Carbonfund.org to make sure our race is CarbonFree®." 

In addition to organizing the world's most northerly marathon, Polar Running Adventures also organizes the world's most southerly marathon, the Antarctic Ice Marathon. Working with a network of associate specialists, including the world's foremost polar logistics experts, the company delivers world class events in the most remote parts of the planet.  Carbonfund.org admires these hearty competitors and is proud to partner with Polar Running Adventures to help the North Pole Marathon achieve CarbonFree® status.  

Published in carbonfree blog
Thursday, 28 March 2013 19:35

The Politics of Climate Change

Global warming has become a highly charged political issue.  The players in the climate change drama cast into different roles.  It seems like you must be a Democrat to be interested in combating global warming, or if you’re a Republican, you cannot be environmentally motivated. 

“The Earth’s climate does not care whether you are a Democrat or a Republican. It doesn’t care whether you’re liberal or conservative. Climate change will affect all Americans no matter what your political beliefs, your religious beliefs, your race, class, creed, et cetera, okay. And in the end, the only way we’re going to deal with this issue is if we come together as a country and have a serious conversation, not about is it real. But what can we do about it,” Anthony Leiserowitz, Director of the Yale Project on Climate Change Communication and a Research Scientist at the School of Forestry and Environmental Studies at Yale University said in an episode titled, “Encore: Ending the Silence on Climate Change” this month on Bill Moyer & Company.

For many years fossil fuel company interests have waged an active disinformation campaign that has borne fruit for them.  They learned well from tobacco war strategy, which was to make people believe the science isn’t clear and that the experts do not agree.  This leads the average person to reserve judgment on climate change.  They aren’t likely to take global warming seriously until it seems that the experts reach a conclusion.  Unfortunately that day will be long coming because these big, powerful companies will continue to spread misinformation.

The climate change disinformation campaign has spread so far that it’s even affected politics.  In last year’s presidential election the question was, “If we focus on protecting the environment, won’t that harm the economy?”  The truth is that there is no inherent contradiction.  The U.S. could, in fact, lead the Green Industrial Revolution.

 What is also interesting is that Republicans weren’t always painted with the not caring about global warming brush.  They actually led the charge on issues such as acid rain.  President George H.W. Bush passed cap and trade legislation on sulfur dioxide.  It was one of the most successful environmental programs in American history, and it was accomplished at a cost far below even best guess estimates at the time.

The answer to the politicization of climate change is that the U.S. needs a groundswell of grassroots movement for environmental change.  We need to get organized and demand change of our politicians.  This country’s political system simply is not conducive to making the changes itself to deal with the global warming crisis we desperately need.  Let’s take partisan gridlock out of the picture.  We can begin by mobilizing and directing the 16 percent of Americans that are the Alarmed, defined in my last post on climate change communication, but are unsure what to do to make a difference in climate change.

Published in carbonfree blog
Tuesday, 26 March 2013 16:17

The Art of Climate Change Communication

My last blog post covered the psychology of climate change.  The post closed questioning whether or not the public will heed global warming’s warning signs.  One of the dilemmas facing climate change educators is that research has shown that there is no single American public.  There are actually six distinct audiences that need to be communicated with differently regarding climate change. 

Anthony Leiserowitz, Director of the Yale Project on Climate Change Communication and a Research Scientist at the School of Forestry and Environmental Studies at Yale University, says in an episode titled, “Encore: Ending the Silence on Climate Change” this month on Bill Moyer & Company, “There are multiple publics within the United States. In fact, what we've identified are six Americas.”

Leiserowitz goes on to outline, “Six different Americas that each respond to this issue in very different ways and need different kinds of information about climate change to become more engaged with it.”  He cautions those of us that want to educate others about global warming, “if we were to do a true engagement campaign in this country we would need to recognize that there are very different Americans who need to be engaged in very different ways who have different values and who trust different messengers.”

Here are the six publics that Leiserowitz refers to:

The Alarmed

This group comprises roughly 16 percent of the public and is made up of people who believe global warming is happening.  They acknowledge that it is primarily a human caused, serious and urgent problem, and they want to begin implementing solutions as quickly as possible.

However, they aren’t always certain what the solutions are.  This is coupled with an uncertainty as to what they can accomplish as individuals as well as society at large.  There are things we can do on both fronts, but there remains a communication gap climate change educators need to begin addressing.

The Concerned

This group composes about 29 percent of the public.  Like the Alarmed, the Concerned believe climate change is happening, it’s human caused and serious.  Where the two groups differ is on the urgency of the problem.  The Concerned tend to think of global warming as a distant problem.

Distance is perceived by this group on two levels: in time and space.  The Concerned think of climate change impacting their children or other future generations.  Spatially, they think global warming is affecting Arctic animals or island nations such as the Philippines.  In essence, climate change is a serious problem to this group, but they think there will be plenty of time to address it in the future.

The Cautious

Approximately a quarter of the public make up the Cautious group.  This group is undecided.  They question whether or not global warming is happening and what is causing it.  They aren’t sure it’s even a serious threat, but at least they’re listening.  Climate change educators need to engage this group on some of the basic facts of global warming.

The Disengaged

This group comprises around eight percent of the public.  These people have heard about global warming, but know nothing substantial about it.  Climate change educators should begin by elevating the Disengaged’s basic awareness of the issue.  Then they need to outline global warming’s causes, consequences and potential solutions.

The Doubtful

The second to last group makes up roughly 13 percent of the public.  This group doesn’t think climate change is really happening, and if it is it is natural and not human caused.  This leads the Doubtful to believe there is nothing that we can do about the issue.  These people pay scant attention to global warming, but even if they do they’re inclined to believe it is not a problem.

The Dismissive

This last group comprises a mere eight percent of the American public, but they are very vocal.  These people do not believe climate change is happening, nor do they believe it is human caused or a serious problem.  Many of the Dismissive are conspiracy theorists who claim global warming is a hoax.  They loudly and openly question the validity of climate science data, claiming it’s some sort of plot to further other countries and/or people’s gains.

As you can see from the six distinct publics, there are some definite climate change communication challenges, but the first step is certainly knowing your audience.  Perhaps we should also consider looking at statistics in a different way, one that addresses humans’ visual nature.

Seeing Climate Change from a Different Perspective

Chris Jordan is a digital photographic artist best known for his large scale works portraying mass consumption, consumerism and waste.  Jordan imbeds the message in his art.  For example, the photograph above titled, “Caps Seurat” is made up of 400,000 plastic bottle caps, which is equal to the average number of plastic bottles consumed in the United States every minute.  Jordan has said of his art, “There's this contrast between the beauty in the images and the underlying grotesqueness of the subjects. And it's something that I put there intentionally. Because I was using beauty as a seduction, to draw the viewer in to sit through the piece long enough that the underlying message might seep in.”

Now that you see the art of climate change communication, I’ll explore the political nature of the issue in my next blog post, which is the final in this three-part series.

Published in carbonfree blog
Friday, 22 March 2013 13:43

The Psychology of Climate Change

Regular readers of this blog are all too aware of the dangers that are starting to manifest regarding global warming.  Given the reality of 2012 being the hottest year on record, and other climate change related disasters such as Superstorm Sandy, why isn’t more being done domestically and globally to avert this crisis?  The answer is in our psychology as humans.

Anthony Leiserowitz, Director of the Yale Project on Climate Change Communication and a Research Scientist at the School of Forestry and Environmental Studies at Yale University, specializes in human behavior, in particular the psychology of risk perception and decision making as it relates to global warming.  He is an expert on U.S. and international perception of climate change risks, support and opposition for climate policies, and willingness to make individual behavioral change.  Leiserowitz points to humans’ needs to tangibly experience phenomena in order to connect with it on a deeper level.  The first problem with the issue is that we cannot see carbon dioxide.  Perhaps if we could see blue smoke, for example, billowing around us we would be more motivated to immediately tackle global warming.

The climate change problem is further complicated by its faceless nature.  There isn’t one country or person we can point to as causing global warming.  We are all responsible on a daily basis.  Then add to that there’s the fact that climate change is not an immediate threat.  It’s certainly becoming one, but it takes time for the planet to heat up and we are fast approaching the point of no return.

Many people do not understand how a few degrees one way or the other will make a difference to the planet.  Leiserowitz likened it to a fever in an episode titled, “Encore: Ending the Silence on Climate Change” this month on Bill Moyer & Company.  “People often will say, ‘Wow, you know, four, five degrees, that doesn't sound like very much. I mean, I see the temperature change more from night to day.’  But it's the wrong way to think about it. I mean, think about when you get sick and you get a fever, okay. Your body is usually at, you know, 98.7 degrees.”

He continued to say, “If your temperature rises by one degree you feel a little off, but you can still go to work. You're fine. It rises by two degrees and you're now feeling sick, in fact you're probably going to take the day off because you definitely don't feel good. And in fact, you're getting everything from hot flashes to cold chills, okay.  At three you're starting to get really sick. And at four degrees and five degrees your brain is actually slipping into a coma, okay, you're close to death. I think there's an analogy here of that little difference in global average temperature just like that little difference in global body temperature can have huge implications as you keep going. And so unfortunately the world after two and especially after three degrees starts getting much more frightening, and that's exactly what the scientists keep telling us. But will we pay attention to those warning signs?”

My next blog post will discuss how to effectively communicate about climate change to overcome some of the psychological challenges humans face outlined in this post.  There are ways to get the public to pay attention to, and in fact, engage on the issue of global warming.  However, there is an art to it.

Published in carbonfree blog

Many people have read in the news about how the United States is tapping into unprecedented natural gas reserves through the process of hydraulic fracturing, also called fracking, where highly pressurized water, sand and chemicals are inserted to fracture shale rock which releases natural gas.  Drilling can have environmental impacts such as contamination of ground water, air quality risks, migration of gases and hydraulic fracturing chemicals to the surface, and surface contamination from spills and flowback. 

Or they’ve read about the controversial Keystone XL pipeline project that is seeking approval to move oil extracted from Canada’s tar sands down through the western United States to refineries along the Gulf Coast.  There is evidence that extracting oil from the sands are increasing levels of cancer-causing compounds in surrounding lakes far beyond natural levels.

The latest news in accessing exotic forms of carbon comes from Japan, where their government announced that they’ve successfully extracted natural gas from methane hydrates, also called clathrates, buried beneath the sea bed.  Clathrates are an ultra-concentrated frozen mix of water and gas.  A cubic meter of clathrate contains 164 times as much methane as a cubic meter of methane gas.  Extraction of methane hydrates opens up the possibility for a catastrophic release of gas in the form of accidents during the extraction process.  Even releasing a small amount of clathrates could contribute significantly to climate change.

Governments and corporations worldwide need to stop spending hundreds of billions of dollars searching for new fossil fuel reserves and discovering ways to extract ever more unusual forms of buried carbon.  And we need to stop giving them incentives to do so.  Yes, it is hard to want less and do less, but for the sake of our planet’s health we need to curb our global appetite for fossil fuels.  Let’s start by lowering our carbon footprints.  Then we need to agree to leave fossil fuel reserves in the ground.

According to a detailed estimate, we need to leave four-fifths of global fossil fuel reserves untouched for a good chance of preventing more than 2°C of global warming.   The worst part is we have already identified more underground carbon than we can afford to burn between now and the year 3000.  Now is the time to implement a low carbon lifestyle.  We should do it for our planet, ourselves and for the sake of future generations.

Published in carbonfree blog
Friday, 08 March 2013 13:43

Global Energy Focus on Renewables

Those of us living in the United States can easily get wrapped up in the domestic energy picture, but it is important to stop and take a look at how renewables are doing in other countries too.

If you peruse a list of countries by 2008 emissions, the top emitter of carbon dioxide is currently China, followed closely by the U.S.  China accounts for 23.5% of world emissions, and the U.S. is responsible for 18.27%.  However, the good news is that China’s renewable-energy industry is currently on the upswing due to supportive government policies and generous subsidies; so much so that they’ve achieved the height of the world’s wind and solar industries.  We’ve all heard the phrase, “Everything is made in China.”  The U.S. does import many goods from China, but a report released this week titled, “Advantage America” analyzed trade between the two countries in solar, wind and smart-grid technology and services in 2011. 

The analysis, by Bloomberg New Energy Finance and Pew Charitable Trusts, showed $6.5 billion in renewable energy technology and services traded between the U.S. and China.  But the U.S. sold $1.63 billion more to China than it imported. 

It’s good to see both countries making such strides in renewable energy.  Oftentimes, the countries are perceived as being in competition with one another, but a more accurate picture would be that they are interdependent.  The bottom line is that both countries should be doing as much as possible to focus on renewables, especially considering they’re the top two carbon dioxide emitters on the planet.  And the global interest and investments in renewables doesn’t stop there.

Saudi Arabia, a country with the world's second largest oil reserves, is beginning a green revolution.  This week, Saudi King Abdullah revealed ambitious plans to develop renewable energy programs that will produce 54,000 megawatts of electricity by 2032 as part of a strategy to save 1.2 million barrels of their oil per day for export.

King Abdullah City for Atomic and Renewable Energy (KA-Care) is a strategy paper set up by King Abdullah in 2010 to develop alternative energy sources so the country won't have to burn millions of barrels of oil a year on power generation.  KA-Care outlines the preliminary phases of the kingdom's agenda for its energy future and focuses on thermal solar, photo-voltaic solar, wind, geothermal and waste-to-energy.  Much of the desert landscape in the Persian Gulf is well suited to solar energy production; a fact that has not escaped the Saudi’s neighbor, the United Arab Emirates (UAE). 

The UAE, with 8% of the world's proven oil reserves, has also embarked on a major renewables program, which focuses on nuclear and solar energy production.  By taking a look at the global energy picture, we see that even those countries with vast fossil fuel resources recognize the finite limitations of their reserves and the importance of investing in sustainable energy projects, which is great news in the fight against climate change.  Every country on the planet contributes to global warming, and every country will have to do their part in order to pave the way to a sustainable energy future.

Published in carbonfree blog

Most of the time, we do not take into account the complete costs to producing or consuming a good or service.  This is because we focus on the explicit costs.  For example, if we were to bake a loaf of bread, we would take into account the cost of the flour, yeast, sugar, salt, water, milk, and butter.  Perhaps we would even calculate our labor time to make the dough and the cost of running the oven, but would we account for the carbon dioxide dumped into the atmosphere for the delivery truck that delivered the baking supplies?  How about the CO2 emissions from the power plant burning fossil fuels to generate the electricity to run the oven?  The problem is that we are not required to bear the full cost of production.  Some of the costs to bake that loaf of bread were shifted to society as a whole. 

Even if we did not bake the loaf of bread ourselves, we’re still shifting costs to society as a whole just by consuming it.  Our cars burn gasoline to drive to and from the grocery store, and regardless if we walked or biked, gasoline was likely also burned to deliver the bread to the grocery store in the first place.  Sure the delivery truck paid for the gasoline, but many companies do not pay for the carbon emissions their operations generate.

We need to make some drastic changes to avoid the ills of global warming, which we are beginning to see affect our daily lives, but the logistics of transforming our world’s energy system can be intimidating.  The first thing we need to do is get off fossil fuels and transition to renewable energy sources.  Easier said than done, I know.  It will be a complex and time-consuming process converting power plants, vehicles/transport systems, homes and commercial buildings.  Unfortunately, time is not on our side here.  We really need to reduce carbon emissions 80% by 2050. 

So then the question becomes how can we transition the world’s energy infrastructure to sustainable sources by mid-century?  One of the ways suggested is to implement a tax on CO2 emissions that begins low and gradually increases.  There should be no mystery either about how much and at what intervals over time the tax will rise.  Then people, businesses and governments can plan their fossil fuel exit strategy.

The revenues the carbon tax generates should be directed into subsidizing renewable energy innovation and overhauling energy infrastructure. 

Ideally, the carbon tax should be global.  Again there are logistical challenges to this climate change solution.  The key is that we need a systematic and practical process.  Isn’t it time we started taking responsibility for the full costs of production and consumption?  Society is bearing the cost as a whole, and society as a whole needs to be part of the solution.

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